Author(s): A. Paradkar, A. Davari, A. Feliachi, T. Biswas

Reference: Journal Power Sources, Vol. 128, Issue 2, pp. 218-230, April 2004

Abstract: In this paper, the integration of a fuel cell into the power system is treated as a load frequency control (LFC) problem with the fuel cell acting as a load disturbance source. The integration of a fuel cell into the power system results into a change in real power. But changes in real power affect the system frequency. Thus, the integration will result into a change of frequency of the synchronous machines. Hence, we need to design a control scheme for keeping the system in the steady state. An optimal controller based on the disturbance accommodation control (DAC) theory is proposed for this load frequency control problem. For demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed controller, we have considered a two-area power system with the fuel cell introduced in area 1. The fuel cell is considered as an external disturbance to each subsystem. A mathematical model is derived for each subsystem and based upon these models controllers are designed for keeping each subsystem stable, which in turn stabilizes the overall system. So, the proposed controller is decentralized in nature. To account for the modeling uncertainties, an observer is designed to estimate each subsystem?s own and interfacing variables. The controller uses these estimates to optimize a given performance index and allocate generating unit outputs according to the requirements.

Keywords: Power system, Distributed generator, Load frequency control, Optimal control, Disturbance accommodation control, Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell